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A Primer for Monitoring Water Funds

Water Funds are governance and financial mechanisms organized around the central principle of watershed conservation. This document is intended to assist people working on Water Funds to understand their information needs and become familiar with the strengths and weaknesses of various monitoring approaches. This primer is not intended to make people monitoring experts, but rather […]


Increasing Participation In Incentive
Programs For Biodiversity Conservation

Engaging private landowners in conservation activities for imperiled species is critical to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity. Market-based approaches can incentivize conservation behaviors on private lands by shifting the benefit–cost ratio of engaging in activities that result in net conservation benefits for target species. In the United States and elsewhere, voluntary conservation agreements with financial incentives […]


Financial Mechanisms For Environmental Compliance in Infrastructure Projects

Environmental impact assessments (EIA) are the main regulatory tool governments use to balance the development and environmental values at stake in infrastructure development. Currently, however, project developers’ incentive for environmental performance dissipates as soon as environmental approval and financing are secured. To really protect the environment, EIAs need to be accompanied by intelligently structured financial […]

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Hidden wealth revealed in Ontario's Greenbelt: The Lake Simcoe Watershed

Toronto, June 26, 2008 – The ecological benefits provided by the Lake Simcoe ecosystem, a vital part of the world’s largest and most diverse Greenbelt, are estimated at close to $1 billion a year, according to a study released today. Lake Simcoe Basin’s Natural Capital: The Value of the Watershed’s Ecosystem Services, examines the goods […]

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Vietnam Biodiversity Law, No. 20/2008/QH12, 2009

Pursuant to the 1992 Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, which was amended and supplemented under Resolution 51/2001/QH10 dated on December 25, 2001 of the Xth National Assembly, the 10th session; this Law stipulates biodiversity conservation and sustainable development.  


Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

The Chesapeake Bay TMDL – the largest ever developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency – identifies the necessary pollution reductions of nitrogen, phosphorus and sediment across Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia and the District of Columbia and sets pollution limits necessary to meet applicable water quality standards in the Bay and its […]

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Conservation Cowboys

California’s booming population over the past decade has meant a lot of new development in the form of housing and roadways; taking large swaths of agricultural range and farm land with it. Environmentalists say this growth has delivered the state to a crossroads where the extinction or survival for many types of species, wildlife and […]


Net Pay: Economic Analysis of Mangrove Restoration

A presentation given at the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies International Society of Tropcial Forestry conference, March 2, 2007. The presentation discusses methods of economic valuation for the ecosystem services of mangrove restoration. It also deals with efforts in Kenya to restore mangrove forests and to ensure that the local people involved in […]


Background: The History and Status of Wetland Mitigation Banking and Water Quality Trading

This presentation was delivered by two of the United States Protection Agency's senior policy makers at the National Forum on Synergies Between Water Quality Trading and Wetland Mitigation Banking in July 2005. It gives the major elements of both wetland mitigation banking and water quality trading in the United States. Through timelines and data it […]

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The TEEB for Policy Makers Report – Summary document

This report demonstrates the value of ecosystems and biodiversity to the economy, to society and to individuals. It  underlines the urgency of action, as well as the benefits and opportunities that will arise as a result of taking such action. The report shows that the cost of sustaining biodiversity and ecosystem services is lower than […]


The TEEB Climate Issues update

This update from our TEEB study presents a sub-set of early conclusions which relate to climate change. A fuller report on these and several other areas of relevance to national and international policy-makers will be published in November 2009. However, in view of the climate change conference in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2009, we thought […]

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Emerging Markets for Ecosystem Services: A Case Study of the Panama Canal Watershed Part II

per Haworth Press Exciting opportunities await the use of market mechanisms for protecting forest ecosystems. However, questions remain on how to best apply these mechanisms. Emerging Markets for Ecosystem Services: A Case Study of the Panama Canal Watershed provides an integrated, interdisciplinary methodological approach for evaluating market opportunities for watershed services, carbon sequestration, and biodiversity […]


Carbon Trading – A Critical Dialogue

Carbon trading has two parts. First, governments hand out free tradable rights to emit carbon dioxide to big industrial polluters, allowing them to make money from business as usual. Second, companies buy additional pollution credits from projects in the South that claim to emit less greenhouse gas than they would have without the investment. Most […]


Moving to Markets in Environmental Regulation: Lessons from Twenty Years of Experience

Over the last decade, market-based incentives have become the regulatory tool of choice when trying to solve difficult environmental problems. Evidence of their dominance can be seen in recent proposals for addressing global warming (through an emissions trading scheme in the Kyoto Protocol) and for amending the Clean Air Act (to add a new emissions […]